A brain tumor is a mass or growth of abnormal cells in brain. It occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain. Brain tumors can be of 2 types: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors. Further brain tumors can be divided into Primary Tumors (which start within the brain), and Secondary or Metastatic Tumors (which begin in other parts of your body and spread to brain).
How quickly a brain tumor grows varies greatly and depends on many factors. The growth rate and the location of brain tumor determines how it will affect the function of nervous system. All types of brain tumors produce symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain involved.
Brain tumors may grow from pituitary gland (craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma), nerves (neuroma), dura (meningioma). They may also grow from the brain tissue itself (glioma). As they grow, they may compress normal tissue and cause various symptoms.
Brain tumor treatment options depend on the type of brain tumor, as well as its size and location. Treatment goals may focus on relieving symptoms or be curative.
Medical science neither knows the causes of brain tumors nor how to prevent primary tumors that start in the brain. But there are certain factors that increase the risk of brain tumors, which include: -
The signs and symptoms of a brain tumor vary greatly and depend on the size, location and rate of growth of tumor. Some tumors cause direct damage by invading brain tissue and some tumors may cause pressure on the surrounding brain. General symptoms include:
If one has symptoms that suggest a brain tumor, doctor will do a physical exam and ask about personal and family health history. One may also have to undergo one or more of the following tests :
There are several treatment options for Brain Tumors. The options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Many people might require a combination of treatments. The choice of treatment depends mainly on the following:
Surgery is usually the first treatment option for most brain tumors. The most common types of surgery performed for brain tumors are:
Craniotomy is an operation in which a surgeon removes a piece of the skull over the tumor. They carefully remove part or all of the tumor and replace the piece of skull. Some of this operation may be done while you are awake so the surgeon can check your speech and movement.
2) MRI Guided Laser Ablation
MRI-guided laser ablation is a minimally invasive neurosurgical technique for a number of diseases, including brain tumors. This treatment involves using lasers to target and destroy the tumor. This procedure can help surgeons address the most serious brain tumors, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and brain tumors that are located close to sensitive structures in the brain, making them hard to access through traditional open surgery (craniotomy). This technique can reduce pain after surgery and shorten recovery time compared to that associated with craniotomy.
3) Minimally Invasive Endonasal Endoscopy (endonasal endoscopic surgery)
This surgery allows surgeon to remove tumors or lesions through nose and sinuses. It allows them to access parts of the brain without making an incision. The procedure involves the use of an endoscope. Surgeon can use this technique for tumors on the pituitary gland, tumors on the base of the skull, and tumors growing at the bottom part of the brain.
4) Minimally Invasive Neuroendoscopy
Neuroendoscopy uses endoscopes to remove brain tumors. Surgeon may make small, dime-sized holes in the skull to access parts of the brain during this surgery.
This procedure is used to remove a small amount of brain tissue or a tumor so it can be examined under a microscope. This involves a small incision and hole in the skull.
In few of the surgeries, patient may be awake when the surgeon removes part or all of the brain tumor or patient may be given general anesthesia. Patient may be asked to move a leg, count, say the alphabet, or tell a story. His ability to follow these commands helps the surgeon protect important parts of the brain.
In some cases, surgery isn't possible. If the tumor is in the areas like brain stem or certain other areas, the surgeon may not be able to remove the tumor without harming normal brain tissue. In such cases other treatment options are considered like radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
After brain tumor surgery, it will take time for the patient to return to his/her usual level of energy. One may have a headache or feel uncomfortable for the first few days. However, medicines can usually control pain. Regular checkups may be required post-surgery. Extra rest would be required for healing. The amount of time required to recover after brain tumor surgery is different for each person and depends on:
Brain tumor surgery can cause problems with thoughts, feelings and behaviors. After surgery, the patient may need help in recovering with physical therapists, occupational therapists and speech therapists. The recovery period may vary ranging from 4-6 weeks to approximately 6 months.
|SNo||Procedure||Cost in India (USD)|
|1||Investigations||800 - 1000|
|2||Craniotomy or Open Brain Surgery||6000 - 8000|
|3||Minimally Invasive Endonasal Endoscopy||4500 - 5500|
|4||Minimally Invasive Neuroendoscopy||7500 - 9000|
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